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Fourth Wave of Opioid Epidemic

Dr. Laxmaiah Manchikanti presents the cause and effect of the opioid epidemic’s fourth wave. He describes the first three waves, with rising deaths from prescription opioids, heroin, and synthetic opioids. He explains the lack of border control and the influx of illicit drugs in the post-COVID-19 era. He presents published data from opioid use and addiction studies and discusses the implications of opioid-related deaths despite the reductions in opioid prescriptions.

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