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Epidural Clinical Relevance and Cost Utility

Dr. Laxmaiah Manchikanti discusses clinical data’s relevance to real-world individualized patient care and its financial implications. Dr. Manchikanti presents the total cost of facet joint interventions, epidural services, and spinal cord stimulators to Medicare beneficiaries from 2009 to 2018.

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He emphasizes that evidence-based medicine must keep in mind the ethical care of the patient. He discusses loopholes in guideline preparation and presents controversies in published data on epidural injections and the cost-effectiveness of procedures.

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